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Consider the set S = {1, ω, ω^{2}}, where ω and ω^{2} are cube roots of unity. If * denotes the multiplication operation, the structure (S, *) forms

Fetch_And_Add(X, i) is an atomic Read-Modify-Write instruction that reads the value of memory location X, increments it by the value i, and returns the old value of X. It is used in the pseudocode shown below to implement a busy-wait lock. L is an unsigned integer shared variable initialized to 0. The value of 0 corresponds to lock being available, while any non-zero value corresponds to the lock being not available.

AcquireLock (L) {

while (Fetch_And_Add (L,1))

L = 1;

}

ReleaseLock (L) {

L = 0;

}

This implementation

The surface area of a cube is 96 cm^{2}. What is the length of its side?

Newton-Raphson method is used to compute a root of the equation x^{2} − 13 = 0 with 3.5 as the initial value. The approximation after one iteration is