Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
The IoT can be viewed as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving
interoperable information and communication technologies (ICT).
Characteristics of IoT
Interconnectivity: With regard to the IoT, anything can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure.
Heterogeneity: The devices in the IoT are heterogeneous as based on different hardware platforms and networks. They can interact with other devices or service platforms through different networks.
Dynamic changes: The state of devices change dynamically, e.g., sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including location and speed. Moreover, the number of devices can change dynamically.
Features of IoT:
There are following features of IoT:
- Communicating objects based on internet technologies
- Detection, identification and location of physical objects
- Communication through connectivity
- Every physical object must be equipped with an IPv6-address.
Some real world Example of IoT Application:
1. Smart Cities
The Internet of Things (IoT) offers new opportunities for cities to use data to manage traffic, make better use of infrastructure and keep citizens safe. The objective of Smart city would be to use technology to offer services that are intelligent, advanced, affordable and accessible.
2. Smart Home
In smart home, all necessary things like switches, lights, AC (all electronic equipments) are controlled by Mobile application or Personnel computer. This technology provides homeowners security, comfort, convenience and energy efficiency by allowing them to control smart devices, often by a smart home app on their smartphone or other networked devices.
The internet of things has numerous applications in healthcare, from remote monitoring to smart sensors and medical device integration. The body functions monitoring sensors are connected to the network to update the doctor or the hospital about the patient’s real-time status like heart beat status or liver functioning etc. Also in the critical situations an ambulance can be called automatically.
Applications of IoT in Agricultural systems are very useful for the formers. It helps in
checking of soil moisture, nutrient and PH levels in the field. It also helps in weather
forecasting, water requirement for crops etc. A system is built for monitoring the crop
field with the help of sensors (light, humidity, temperature, soil moisture, etc.). The realtime data about the soil and crop status is being monitored by the farmer like the
farmer gets a notification about watering the crops etc.
Qus. What is Computer Ethics?
Ans. Computer ethics deals with the procedures, values and practices that govern the process of consuming computing technology and its related disciplines without damaging or violating the moral values and beliefs of any individual, organization or entity.
Qus. What is Software Piracy? How does shareware deal with software piracy?
Ans. Software piracy is used to describe the act of illegally using, copying or distributing software without ownership or legal rights. Shareware is a good way to market software. It allows consumers to evaluate an application prior to making a purchase decision. They can easily determine if it meets their business or personal needs, which usually results to a satisfied customer.
Qus . Why do you think in developing countries like India, it is difficult to stop software piracy?
Ans. Software piracy is hard to stop for several reasons:
a. It’s not a violent crime, so eliminating the criminals by killing them is not really an option. As such, the only remaining option is a legal approach - charging them with a crime and threatening them with prison if they don’t quickly agree to a guilty plea.
b. Software piracy is very easy. If you want your software to work without internet connection, then you need to put the entire code and all the data into the hands of a users; consequently, any anti-piracy measures have to be in their hands as well, making it possible for smart coders to reverse-engineer your code, find the part which performs verification of “license to use”, and remove or twist that part so that the software works without a license.
c. Sharing cracked software is ludicrously easy and hard to detect.
d. There are millions of people involved in this. Quite literally, not only your prisons, but your court-rooms as well are not big enough to realistically charge everyone. So you have to prioritize who you will go after.
e. Experts still can’t agree to what extent is piracy harmful. There were numerous cases where a pirated version of something was instrumental in making it popular, which not only later led people to buy a legal copy, but generated interest in a sequel, which then became massive hit.
f. People who can afford buying movies and games generally do so; people who cannot afford it will either pirate them, or not get them at all.
g. The price tag associated with a legal software is generally high.
Qus. What are the different ways of stopping Software Piracy?
Ans. The different ways to stop software piracy are:
• Educate your staff on the licensing requirements of your software purchases
• Conduct a self-audit of your software licenses
• Acquire any licenses needed for full compliance
• The most widely used method is the license key; code that is built into an application to require a valid key to unlock the software.
Qus. How does Spamming affect economically?
Ans. Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have very little or sometimes no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is almost impossible to hold senders accountable for their mass mailings. On the other hand it costs huge to the sender and may sometime even get dubbed.
Qus. Discuss two main areas of Industrial Property.
Ans. Copyright and Trademark.
Qus. How can spamming be reduced?
Ans. By using these precautions you can greatly mitigate what spam you do receive and prevent most spam from ever happening.
• Be careful where you enter your email at.
• Create or use disposable email addresses for websites you do not trust.
• Never open spam when you receive it.
• Keep your computer virus and malware free.
• If your friends are sending you emails sent to a large recipient list, request that they use BCC instead of TO or CC, so that other recipients cannot see your email address; or request they stop including you if you do not want to receive the emails.
• Do not list your email address on your website or anywhere the public can access it.
Qus. How is phishing and pharming performed to perform Cybercrime?
Ans. Phising is a fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers.
Pharming is the fraudulent practice of directing Internet users to a bogus website that mimics the appearance of a legitimate one, in order to obtain personal information such as passwords, account numbers, etc.
Qus. What are the different types of Cybercrimes?
Ans. The different types of cyber crime are:
• Financial fraud crimes
• Computer as a target
• Computer as a tool
Qus. How are Hackers different from Crackers?
Ans. Hackers are those computers experts which breaks into computers to check any vulnerably so that no one can misuse the services. These are really intelligent and smart persons who use there ability to protect the community from cyber crimes and computer thefts.
Whereas, Crackers are those peoples who use there knowledge to do computer crimes for gaining popularity among peoples and to earn fast money. They break into computer networks for their enjoyment and cause harm to them. These persons does not have real knowledge and know something about using the particular software to break into computers.
Qus. What is cloud computing?
Ans: cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, intelligence and more—over the Internet ('the cloud') to offer faster innovation, flexible resources and economies of scale. You typically pay only for cloud services you use, helping lower your operating costs, run your infrastructure more efficiently and scale as your business needs change.
Cloud computing is a big shift from the traditional way businesses think about IT resources. Here are seven common reasons organizations are turning to cloud computing services.
Qus. What is a virus? What is anti-virus software?
Ans. A computer virus is a malicious program that self-replicates by copying itself to another program. In other words, the computer virus spreads by itself into other executable code or documents. The purpose of creating a computer virus is to infect vulnerable systems, gain admin control and steal user sensitive data. Hackers design computer viruses with malicious intent and prey on online users by tricking them.
Antivirus software is a program or set of programs that are designed to prevent, search for, detect, and remove software viruses, and other malicious software like worms, trojans, adware, and more.
Qus. How is backup utility useful? Is it necessary to take backup of data?
Ans: Backup is a very helpful utility. You can backup your data with that and whenever your data is corrupted by any virus or Trojans your data will remain safe.
It is not necessary to backup your until or unless you have something really important stuff in your machine.The backup depends on your wish if you want to make backup, go on for it and if you don't leave it. But if you have something very useful for you in future then its better to take backup.
Qus. What are different types of threats to computer security?
Ans: A Threat is a potential violation of security. When a threat is actually executed, it becomes attack. Those who execute such actions, or cause them to be executed are called attackers.
Some common threats the average computer user faces everyday are
7. PC Intrusion:
8. Denial of Service
10. Password Guessing
Qus. What type damages can be caused by viruses to your computer?
Ans: Damages caused by Viruses:
– Damage or Delete files.
– Slow down your computer.
– Invade your email programs.
Qus. What are malware? What type damages can they cause to your computer?
Ans: "Malware" is short for malicious software and used as a single term to refer to virus, spy ware, worm etc. Malware is designed to cause damage to a stand-alone computer or a networked pc. So wherever a malware term is used it means a program which is designed to damage your computer it may be a virus, worm or Trojan.
Qus What is a spam? Why has it become a big Internet issue?
Ans: Spam email is a form of commercial advertising which is economically viable because email is a very cost-effective medium for the sender. If just a fraction of the recipients of a spam message purchase the advertised product, the spammers are making money and the spam problem is perpetuated.
Qus What are denial-of-service or Sweeper attack?
Ans: A denial-of-service attack is a security event that occurs when an attacker prevents legitimate users from accessing specific computer systems, devices, services or other IT resources.
Qus. What is Authentication and Authorization? Why are these two used together?
Ans: Difference between Authentication and Authorization. Both the terms are often used in conjunction with each other in terms of security, especially when it comes to gaining access to the system. Authentication means confirming your own identity, while authorization means granting access to the system.