Operating Systems for Mobile and Desktop
Operating Systems for Mobile and Desktop
Commonly Used Operating Systems for Desktop are
1. Windows: Microsoft launched Windows 1.0 operating system in 1985 and since then Windows has ruled the world’s software market. It is a GUI (Graphic User Interface) and various versions of Windows have been launched like Windows 95, Windows 98, Win NT, Windows XP, Windows 7 and the latest being Windows 8.
2. Linux: Linux is a free and open software which means it is freely available for use and since its source code is also available so anybody can use it, modify it and redistribute it. It can be downloaded from www.linux.org. It is a very popular operating system used and supported by many companies. The defining component of this operating system is the Linux kernel.
3. BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions): This is an Indian distribution of GNU/Linux. It consists of Linux operating system kernel, office application suite, Bharateeya OO, Internet browser (Firefox), multimedia applications and file sharing.
4. UNIX: It is a multitasking, multiuser operating system originally developed in 1969 at Bell Labs. It was one of the first operating systems developed in a high level language, namely C. Due to its portability, flexibility and power, UNIX is widely being used in a networked environment. Today, ”UNIX” and "Single UNIX Specification" interface are owned and trademarked by The Open Group. There are many different varieties of UNIX, although they share common similarities, the most popular being GNU/Linux and Mac OS X.
5. Solaris: It is a free Unix based operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992. It is now also known as Oracle Solaris. Solaris is registered as compliant with Single UNIX Specification. It is quite scalable and is used on virtual machines.
Mobile Operating Systems (Mobile OS)
It is the operating system that operates on digital mobile devices like smart phones and tablets. It extends the features of a normal operating system for personal computers so as to include touch screen, Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS mobile navigation, camera, music player and many more. The most commonly used mobile operating systems are – Android and Symbian
Android: It is a Linux derived Mobile OS released on 5th November 2007 and by 2011 it had more than 50% of the global Smartphone market share. It is Google’s open and free software that includes an operating system, middleware and some key applications for use on mobile devices. Android applications are quiet user friendly and even one can easily customize the Smartphone with Android OS. Various versions of Android OS have been released like 1.0, 1.5, 1.6, 2. x, 3.0 etc. Most Android phones use the 2.x release while Android 3.0 is available only for tablets. The latest Android version released is 4.2.2. The Android releases have dessert inspired codenames like Cupcake, Honeycomb, Ice Cream sandwich and Jelly Bean.
Symbian: This Mobile OS by Nokia (currently being maintained by Accenture) designed for smartphones. It offers high level of functional integration between communication and personal information management. It has an integrated mail box and it completely facilitates the usage of all Google applications in your smartphone easily. Symbian applications are easy to shut down as compared to Android applications. Various versions like S60 series, S80 series, S90 series, Symbian Anna etc have been released. The latest Symbian releases (Symbian Belle) can support 48 languages.
Qus. What are various categories of software?
Ans: Software are classified into following categories –
(i) System Software
a. Operating System
b. Language Processor
(ii) Application Software
c. Customized software
d. Developer Tools
Qus. What is the difference between an interpreter and a compiler?
Interpreter: Interpreter is a type of system software that translates and executes instructions written in a computer program lini-by-line, unit by unit etc. It is slower in execution because each time when you run the program translation is required.
Compiler: Compiler is another type of system software that translates and executes instructions written in a computer program in one go. Once compiled program need not to translate again so it works faster.
Qus. What is application software? Why it is required?
Ans: Application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specific task. Such as for word processing there are many application software like MS-Word, Wordpad etc. These software are required to perform special task using the computer like painting, recording, typing, data handling etc.
Qus. What is system software?
Ans: The software that controls internal computer operations is called system software. It manages all the resources of a system. Its example is Operating System.
Qus. Discuss the role of utility software in the context of computer performance?
Ans: Utilities are those application programs that assist the computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning/cleaning viruses or arranging information etc. its example is Antivirus software.
Qus. What is the importance of an OS?
Ans: An operating system is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware. It manages all the resources of the computer system. It provides and environment to the user to work with. All the application are installed after the operating system is installed. It manages memory, processing, storage, memory etc.
Qus. What is the utility of these software?
(a) disk fragmentor (b) backup software
(a) disk fragmentor: A file is fragmented when it becomes too large for your computer to store in a single location on a disk. When this happens, your computer splits the file up and stores in pieces. You can use fragmented files, but it takes your computer longer to access them.
(b) Backup software: This utility program facilitates the backing-up of disk. Back-up means duplicating the disk information so that in case of any damage or data-loss, this backed-up data may be used.
Qus. Describe the role of Operating System as a resource Manager.
Ans: A computer system has many resources (hardware and software), which may be require to complete a task. The commonly required resources are input/output devices, memory, file storage space, CPU etc. The operating system acts as a manager of the above resources and allocates them to specific programs and users, whenever necessary to perform a particular task. Therefore operating system is the resource manager i.e. it can manage the resource of a computer system internally. The resources are processor, memory, files, and I/O devices. In simple terms, an operating system is the interface between the user and the machine.
Operating System Management Tasks
1. Processor management which involves putting the tasks into order and pairing them into manageable size before they go to the CPU.
2. Memory management which coordinates data to and from RAM (random-access memory) and determines the necessity for virtual memory.
3. Device management which provides interface between connected devices.
4. Storage management which directs permanent data storage.
5. Application which allows standard communication between software and your computer.
6. User interface which allows you to communicate with your computer.
Qus. What are the advantages of parallel computing?
Ans: Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. It refers to the simultaneous working of multiple processors to solve a computational problem. Its advantages are –
(i) It saves time and the cost too.
(ii) It makes easier to solve larger or complex problems.
(iii) It provides efficient use of underlying hardware.
(iv) It can utilize the resources available remotely.